PhD Voices

The New Approach to Article 22 Referrals through an Ordoliberal Lens

On 11 September 2020, competition commissioner Margrethe Vestager announced a change of approach in case referrals to the Commission under Article 22 of the merger regulation (EUMR). Accordingly, member states may refer to the Commission concentrations that do not meet the notification thresholds but give rise to competition concerns for various reasons. Six months after...
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Too Much, Too Many: The Principle of International Comity in Digital Markets

Enforcement is key to understanding an effective application of competition law. In digital markets, as much as in any other sector, competition authorities must deal with the extraterritoriality of business conducts and mergers to enforce their decisions effectively. Public international law provides the principle of territoriality to establish a sovereign State’s exclusive jurisdiction over an...
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Calling For a New Theory of Dynamic Competition

Welcome to Ph.D. Voices, a monthly series in which Ph.D. candidates share their research with the antitrust world. The first entry is by Anouk van der Veer, Ph.D. candidate at the European University Institute. **** Introduction Once upon a time, companies like Google, Apple, and Meta were praised for their success. But the fairy tale has...
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